Chapter #3 The History of the Earth.


1. What is the primary energy source that drives Earths present day geological processes? (page 35)

2. What are the suite of processes that have contributed to the nature of the Earths surface? (page 35)

3. How long has it been understood that the Earth's surface is dynamic rather than static? (page 35)

4. Describe the observations and evidence that lead scientists to postulate that the surface of the Earth must be dynamic rather than static. (36 &endash; 39)

5. On average, at what rate is the Earth's crust moving away from the spreading centers? (page 39)

6. Describe how the processes of subduction and mid-ocean spreading are different and yet both lead to the development of new material on the Earth. (page 41)

7. What are the four sources that have heated the mantel/interior throughout the Earth's history? Which of these processes are currently active? (page 42 &endash; 43)

8. How long ago were the continents located together as one super-continent? What is the name given to this super-continent? (page 48)

9. How old is the oldest detectable oceanic crust? What has happened to the ocean crust that is older than this? (page 49)

10. Describe how argon-40 is used by scientist to determine if the earth release gasses from its interior early or late in Earth's history? (page 51-52)

11. What is the evidence that suggests that oceans were present as far back as 3.8-4.0 b.y.a.? (page 52)