**NCTM Mathematics
Curriculum Standards for Grades 5-8**
**Standard 1: Mathematics as Problem Solving**
In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should include numerous and
varied experiences with problem solving as a method of inquiry and application
so that students can:
1) use problem-solving approaches to investigate and understand mathematical
content;
2) formulate problems from situations within and outside mathematics;
3) develop and apply a variety of strategies to solve problems, with emphasis
on multistep and nonroutine problems;
4) verify and interpret results with respect to new problem situations;
5) acquire confidence in using mathematics meaningfully. .
**Standard 3: Mathematics as Reasoning**
In grades 5-8, reasoning shall permeate the mathematics curriculum so
that students can:
1) recognize and apply deductive and inductive reasoning;
2) understand and apply reasoning processes, with special attention to
spatial reasoning and reasoning with proportions and graphs;
3) make and evaluate mathematical conjectures and arguments;
4) validate their own thinking;
5) appreciate the pervasive use and power of reasoning as a part of mathematics.
**Standard 7: Computation and Estimation**
In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should develop the concepts
underlying computation and estimation in various contexts so that students
can:
1) compute with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, integers, and rational
numbers;
2) develop, analyze, and explain procedures for computation and techniques
for estimation;
3) develop, analyze, and explain methods for solving proportions;
4) select and use an appropriate method for computing from among mental
arithmetic, paper-and-pencil, calculator, and computer methods;
5) use computation, estimation, and proportions to solve problems;
6) use estimation to check the reasonableness of results.
**Standard 8: Patterns and Functions**
In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should include explorations
of patterns and functions so that students can:
1) describe, extend, analyze, and create a wide variety of patterns;
2) describe and represent relationships with tables, graphs, and rules;
3) analyze functional relationships to explain how a change in one quantity
results in a change in another;
4) use patterns and functions to represent and solve problems.
**Standard 10: Statistics **
In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should include explorations
of statistics in real-world situations so that students can:
1) systematically collect, organize, and describe data;
2) construct, read, and interpret tables, charts, and graphs;
3) make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on data analysis;
4) evaluate arguments that are based on data analysis;
5) develop an appreciation for statistical methods as powerful means for
decision making.
**Standard 13: Measurement**
In grades 5-8, the mathematics curriculum should include extensive concrete
experiences using measurement so that students can:
1) extend their understanding of the process of measurement;
2) estimate, make, and use measurement to describe and compare phenomena;
3) select appropriate units and tools to measure to the degree of accuracy
required in a particular situation;
4) understand the structure and use of systems of measurement;
5) extend their understanding of the concepts of perimeter, area, volume,
angle measure, capacity, and weight and mass;
6) develop the concepts of rate and other derived and indirect measurements;
7) develop formulas and procedures for determining measures to solve problems. |