National Science Education Standards
Objects and Changes in the Earth and Sky (K-4) 
  • The sun, moon, stars, clouds, birds, and airplanes all have properties, locations, and movements that can be observed and described.
  • The sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the Earth.
  • Objects in the sky have patterns of movement.  The sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons.  The moon moves across the sky on a daily basis much like the sun.  The observable shape of the moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.
Understandings about Science and Technology 
  • People have always had questions about their world.  Science is one way of answering questions and explaining the natural world.
  • People have always had problems and invented tools and techniques (ways of doing something) to solve problems.  Trying to determine the effects of solutions helps people avoid some new problems.
  • Tools help scientists make better observations, measurements, and equipment for investigations.  They help scientists see, measure, and do things that they could not otherwise see, measure, and do.
Communicate a Problem, Design, and Solution 
  • Student abilities should include oral, written, and pictorial communication of the design process and product.  The communication might be show and tell, group discussions, short written reports, or pictures depending upon the students' abilities and the design product.