National Council for Teachers of Mathematics

Curriculum Standards

STANDARD 1:
MATHEMATICS AS PROBLEM SOLVING
In grades K-4, the study of mathematics should emphasize problem solving so that students can--
  • use problem-solving approaches to investigate and understand mathematical content;
  • formulate problems from everyday and mathematical situations;
  • develop and apply strategies to solve a wide variety of problems;
  • verify and interpret results with respect to the original problem;
  • acquire confidence in using mathematics meaningfully.
STANDARD 2:
MATHEMATICS AS COMMUNICATION
In grades K-4, the study of mathematics should include numerous opportunities for communication so that students can--
  • relate physical materials, pictures, and diagrams to mathematical ideas;
  • reflect on and clarify their thinking about mathematical ideas and situations;
  • relate their everyday language to mathematical language and symbols;
  • realize that representing, discussing, reading, writing, and listening to mathematics are a vital part of learning and using mathematics.
STANDARD 3:
MATHEMATICS AS REASONING
In grades K--4, the study of mathematics should emphasize reasoning so that students can--
  • draw logical conclusions about mathematics;
  • use models, known facts, properties, and relationships to explain their thinking;
  • justify their answers and solution processes;
  • use patterns and relationships to analyze mathematical situations;
  • believe that mathematics makes sense.
STANDARD 4:
MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS
In grades K--4, the study of mathematics should include opportunities to make connections so that students can--
  • link conceptual and procedural knowledge;
  • relate various representations of concepts or procedures to one another;
  • recognize relationships among different topics in mathematics;
  • use mathematics in other curriculum areas;
  • use mathematics in their daily lives.
STANDARD 9:
GEOMETRY AND SPATIAL SENSE
In grades K-4, the mathematics curriculum should include two- and three-dimensional geometry so that students can--
  • describe, model, draw, and classify shapes;
  • investigate and predict the results of combining, subdividing, and changing shapes;
  • develop spatial sense;
  • relate geometric ideas to number and measurement ideas;
  • recognize and appreciate geometry in their world.
STANDARD 11:
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
In grades K-4, the mathematics curriculum should include experiences with data analysis and probability so thatstudents can--
  • collect, organize, and describe data;
  • construct, read, and interpret displays of data;
  • formulate and solve problems that involve collecting and analyzing data;
  • explore concepts of chance.