National
Council for Teachers of Mathematics
Curriculum
Standards

STANDARD
1:
MATHEMATICS AS PROBLEM SOLVING 
In
grades K4, the study of mathematics should emphasize problem
solving so that students can
 use problemsolving
approaches to investigate and understand mathematical content;
 formulate problems
from everyday and mathematical situations;
 develop and apply
strategies to solve a wide variety of problems;
 verify and interpret
results with respect to the original problem;
 acquire confidence
in using mathematics meaningfully.

STANDARD
2:
MATHEMATICS AS COMMUNICATION 
In
grades K4, the study of mathematics should include numerous opportunities
for communication so that students can
 relate physical
materials, pictures, and diagrams to mathematical ideas;
 reflect on and
clarify their thinking about mathematical ideas and situations;
 relate their everyday
language to mathematical language and symbols;
 realize that representing,
discussing, reading, writing, and listening to mathematics
are a vital part of learning and using mathematics.

STANDARD
3:
MATHEMATICS AS REASONING 
In
grades K4, the study of mathematics should emphasize reasoning
so that students can
 draw logical conclusions
about mathematics;
 use models, known
facts, properties, and relationships to explain their thinking;
 justify their
answers and solution processes;
 use patterns and
relationships to analyze mathematical situations;
 believe that mathematics
makes sense.

STANDARD
4:
MATHEMATICAL CONNECTIONS 
In
grades K4, the study of mathematics should include opportunities
to make connections so that students can
 link conceptual
and procedural knowledge;
 relate various
representations of concepts or procedures to one another;
 recognize relationships
among different topics in mathematics;
 use mathematics
in other curriculum areas;
 use mathematics
in their daily lives.

STANDARD
9:
GEOMETRY AND SPATIAL SENSE 
In
grades K4, the mathematics curriculum should include two and
threedimensional geometry so that students can
 describe, model,
draw, and classify shapes;
 investigate and
predict the results of combining, subdividing, and changing
shapes;
 develop spatial
sense;
 relate geometric
ideas to number and measurement ideas;
 recognize and
appreciate geometry in their world.

STANDARD
11:
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 
In
grades K4, the mathematics curriculum should include experiences
with data analysis and probability so thatstudents can
 collect, organize,
and describe data;
 construct, read,
and interpret displays of data;
 formulate and
solve problems that involve collecting and analyzing data;
 explore concepts
of chance.
