Olympic athletes benefit by incorporating science-based sports nutrition recommendations into their exercise training programs and competitions. Athletes improve their capacity for exercise training when they meet their energy, fluid, and nutrient needs on a consistent basis. However, maintaining a daily energy and fluid balance can be challenging. Athletes grapple with these questions: How much foods and fluids to consume? What type? When to eat? Viewing nutrition support in terms of a daily fueling cycle helps athletes make nutrition work for them.




Key Points

Each topic presents both basic concepts and application to one or more representative athletes in either strength/power or endurance sport categories.



Sport Category

Cross country skier (female)   Endurance
Cross country skier (male)   Endurance
Ice hockey (female)   Strength/power
Ice hockey (male)   Strength/power
Figure skater (female)   Strength/power

Key Terms

  • Amino acid
  • Body composition
  • Body mass
  • Body weight (BW)
  • Carbohydrate
  • Calorie
  • Energy intake
  • Energy output
  • Euhydration
  • Fat free mass
  • Fat mass
  • Fatty acid
  • Food guide pyramid
  • Hydration
  • Kilocalorie
  • Muscle glycogen
  • Osmolality
  • Osmotic
  • Prehydrate
  • Resting energy expenditure (REE)
  • Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)

Eat for


Energy balance

Fluid balance

Fueling cycle

What can foods and fluid do for you?

Athlete's eating plan

Calorie goals

Calorie values

Food processing takes time

Carbohydrate goals

Protein goals

Fat goals

Vitamins & minerals

Your nutrition numbers

Sports drinks


white spacer block
Winter Olympics Course Outline Comments Questions
white spacer block
© April, 1998, Montana State University-Bozeman