National Science Education Standards
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Structure of the Earth System 
  • The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations. 
  • Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.
Earth in the Solar System 
  • The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.
Unifying Concepts and Processes 
  • Evidence, models, and explanation 
  • Constancy, change, and measurement