NCTM Mathematics
Curriculum Standards for Grades K4
Standard 1: Mathematics as Problem Solving
In grades K4, the study of mathematics should emphasize problem solving
so that students can:
1) use problemsolving approaches to investigate and understand mathematical
content;
2) formulate problems from everyday and mathematical situations;
3) develop and apply strategies to solve a wide variety of problems;
4) verify and interpret results with respect to the original problem;
5) acquire confidence in using mathematics meaningfully.
Standard 2: Mathematics as Communication
In grades K4, the study of mathematics should include numerous opportunities
for communication so that students can:
1) relate physical materials, pictures, and diagrams to mathematical
ideas;
2) reflect on and clarify their thinking about mathematical ideas and
situations;
3) relate their everyday language to mathematical language and symbols;
4) realize that representing, discussing, reading, writing, and listening
to mathematics are a vital part of learning and using mathematics.
Standard 3: Mathematics as Reasoning
In grades K4, the study of mathematics should emphasize reasoning so
that students can:
1) draw logical conclusions about mathematics;
2) use models, known facts, properties, and relationships to explain their
thinking;
3) justify their answers and solution processes;
4) use patterns and relationships to analyze mathematical situations;
5) believe that mathematics makes sense.
Standard 13: Patterns and Relationships
In grades K4, the mathematics curriculum should include the study of
patterns and relationships so that students can:
1) recognize, describe, extend, and create a wide variety of patterns;
2) represent and describe mathematical relationships;
3) explore the use of variables and open sentences to express relationships.
